1700’s Timeline

Here we list the important events from the years 1700 to 1799. They are listed in blocks of 10 years. If you have any other events or additional information then please feel free to contact us.


AD 53 The Roman Emperor Nero marries Claudia Octavia.
13/10/ Year 54 Roman Emperor Claudius I died after eating poisoned mushrooms as a result of a plot inspired by his wife, the Empress Agrippina.
AD 66 Roman Emperor Nero creates the Legion I Italica
AD 70 The destruction of the Second Temple in Jerusalem by the Romans.
123 The Roman Wall (80 miles long) was built, against the incursions of the Scots and Picts.
AD 336 First documentary sign of Christmas celebration in Ancient Rome 25/12/AD 336
369 Saltburn – Known that a watchtower built by the Romans was situated on Huntcliff. Saltburn. By lighting of fires sent out messages warning other locations (with watchtowers) of possible danger etc.
410 Romans left Britain
450 Angles (Denmark) and Saxons (Germans) settling in Britain. River Tees area. Mainly Angles from South Jutland settling in areas near rivers and sea.
AD487 Elizabeth of York is crowned Queen of England.
43BC Cicero (Marcos Tullius) the great Roman orator was executed for a series of attacks on Mark Anthony.
44BC The Ides of March-Anniversary of the death of Julius Caesar.
490BC The original Marathon was won by a breathless messenger who ran 24 miles from the scene of the Battle of Marathon to the city of Athens,. “Rejoice we conquest,” he then gasped- then dropped dead.
Circa 550 Anglo-Saxon King Ida conquers land to the South of the Tees.
13/06/625 King Charles I of England marries Henrietta Maria of France, Princess of France.
642 King of Oswy shares land south from Northumbria with Oswine (King of Deria) to south of the Tees.
651 King Oswy of Bernicia appointed Ethelwald, (son of King Oswald) to land South of the Tees.
680 St. Hilda abbess of Whitby died.
793 Vikings raid Lindisfarne followed by Hartlepool in 800
867 Danes now seem to be settling on land South of the River Tees, Yorkshire.
918 Irish-Viking area of Yorkshire ruled by Ragnald follwing capture of York.
954 Yorkhire becomes ruled by King’s from Southern England
1014 King Canute elected KIng of England.
05/01/1066 Edward the Confessor, England’s most pious King, died.
20/09/1066 Battle of Fulford. Viking Harald Hardrada defeats earls Morcar and Edwin.
29/09/1066 William the Conqueror landed in Pevensey, Sussex.
14/10/1066 Battle of Hastings. Duke William’s Norman forces defeat the English army under King Harold ll.
1069 William the Conqueror in Yorkshire with campaign which foces people from to area onto the North Yorkshire Moors. Hardly a house between York and Durham (60 miles) Hardly a house was left standing.
1071 Malcolm King of Scotland proceeded down River Tees, ravaging as far as Hartlepool on one side, and the extremity of Cleveland on the other.
1072 King William visited Durham and laid the foundation stone for the castle.
1086 Two Northern Earls rebel against Norman raiders. Believed to have been a battle on Coatham Marshes
1093 The first three stones were laid of Durham Cathedral with great ceremony.
1094 Robert de Brus, a distinguished Norman, died about this year.
10/07/1099 The death of El Cid, national hero of Spain.
1100s Robert de Brus, Lord of Cleveland in 1100s and founder of Gisborough Priory.
02/08/1100 William II of England was killed by an arrow in the New Forrest, allegedly mistaken for a deer.
05/08/1100 In Westminster Abbey, Henry 1 was crowned KIng of England.
1119 Guisborough priory was founded by the second Robert de Bruce, for canons regular of the order of St. Austin. At one period upwards of 50 churches and chapels in Yorkshire and Durham belonged to this priory.
1139 River Tees now border for Scotland
1153 Hartlepool and Whitby with other towns robbed of their vessels and property by Esteyn, king of Norway, about this year
1157 King Henry II reclaims Northumberland from the Scots. River Tees no longer border between England and Scotland.
1170 Ive de Argentinein granted land to Redcar to Albert de Crester as the marriage portion of his sister Cristiana.
29/11/1170 Thomas Beckett, Archbishop of Canterbury, was murdered in his own cathedral by four knights believing they were acting on Henry II’s orders.
09/08/1173 Construction of the Leaning Tower of Pisa began in Italy.
20/09/1187 Saladin, the first Sultan of Egypt and Syria, began Siege of Jerusalem.
03/09/1189 Richard 1 ‘The Lionheart’ of England was crowned in Westminster, London.
08/06/1191 Richard I arrives in Acre (Palestine), thus beginning his crusade.
06/04/1199 Richard I Coeur de Lion, King of England, was killed in battle.
27/05/1199 John crowned King of England.
1200s Known that John Andrew ‘King born Saltburn took over Smugglers’ took over The Ship Inn, Old Saltburn.
1205 Port of Coatham pays King John’s custom toll of 17 shillings.
22/07/1209 Massacre at Beziers: The first major military action of the Albigensian Crusade.
15/06/1215 King John of England put his seal on the ‘Magna Carta’.
1215 Hermitage located at Saltburn.
12/10/1216 John, King of England loses his crown jewels in the Wash, the Norfolk Coast.
18/08/1227 Genghis Khan emperor who conquered more than a million square miles of land, died after falling from his horse.
1248 Cologne Cathedral was started to be built. Completed August 1880.
1257 Market and fair granted to Marmaduke de Thweng at Coatham near Redcar
20/09/1258 Salisbury Cathedral was consecrated.
1272 From this time, the lands at Redcar followed the same descent as those at Marske.
06/07/1307 Edward I, having conquered the Welsh, died on his way to Scotland to fight Robert the Bruce.
17/11/1307 William Tell is reputed to have shot the apple off his son’s head on this day.
24/06/1314 Battle of Bannockburn; Scotland regained independence from England.
25/01/1327 Edward III acceded to the English throne.
13/07/1249 Coronation of Alexander III as King of Scots.
18/10/1386 Opening of the University of Heidelberg.
1366 The market which existed at Redcar at this time had probably arisen as a result of the local fishing trade. Fishing was Redcar’s main activity until the 19th century.
16/09/1386 The future Henry V of England born Monmouth Castle in Wales “Bluff” Prince Hal became a ruthless king who fought two bloody campaigns which came to a climax at Agincourt in 1422. He died unheroically of dysentery at the French Castle of Vincennes
1400’s Sulpitius Chapel
Sulpitius Chapel was its name in the 15th century. First mention to come about referees to the middle late 1400’s than again in the middle 1800’s. Human bones were found adjacent to Fisherman’s Crossing in 1911, which were buried in Coatham Church yard.
No one knows today where the exact location, where the Sulpitius Chapel was situated. The nearest places would appear to be Coatham Marshes near to the Marsh House Farm.
1407 The first reference to Redcar as a manor. It is doubtful whether it had a manorial existence separate from Marske.
24/11/1434 River Thames froze over and exactly 281 years later it froze again – hard enough for a Frost Fair.
24/08/1456 The printing of the Gutenberg Bible is completed.
23/09/1459 Battle of Blore Heath, Staffordshire, the first major battle of the English Wars of the Roses.
1470 First indication of shipbuilding on the River Tees when a ship made of wood and iron nails is built for Bishop of Durham.
18/02/1478 George, Duke of Clarence, was murdered in the Tower of London. According to legend, he was drowned in a butt on Malmsey wine.
10/11/1483 Martin Luther, German religious reformer, was born in Elsleben.
22/08/1485 The Battle of Bosworth Field, the death of Richard lll and the end of the House of Plantagnet.
03/02/1488 Portuguese explorer Bartholomew Diaz became the first European to round the Cape of Good Hope.
03/08/1492 Christopher Columbus left Andalucia, Spain, on his first voyage to America. He was actually searching for land called India.
12/10/1492 Christopher Columbus sighted his first land in discovering the New World calling it San Salvador.
26/10/1492 Christopher Columbus discovered Cuba on his first voyage to the New World.
19/11/1493 Christopher Columbus discovered Puerto Rico.
03/05/1494 Christopher Columbus discovered Jamaica while in search of a westward route to the East.
31/07/1498 Christopher Columbus landed in Trinidad.
1500/1600 The Redcar fishermen are described as venturing out to sea through the openings in the dangerous reef of rocks in ‘cobbles’ and selling a boat-load of fish for 4 or 5 shillings.
13/09/1501 Michelangelo begins work on his statue of David.
08/09/1504 Michelangelo unveiled his statue of David in Florence’David.
11/06/1509 Henry VIII of England marries Catherine of Aragon.
15/08/1510 Panama City, Panama, is founded
1510 Redcar recorded as being a ‘poor fishing town.
01/11/1512 Michelangelo unveiled his painting of the ceiling of the Vatican’s Sistine Chapel.
09/09/1513 The Battle of Flodden Field was fought near Braxton in Northumberland in which James IV of Scotland was defeated and killed by English troops under Thomas Howard, Earl of Surrey.
15/09/1514 Thomas Wolsey became Archbishop of York.
07/06/1520 Henry VIII and Francis I of France met in a glittering ceremony at the Field Of The Cloth of Gold, near Calais.
30/06/1520 Montezuma II, last Aztec ruler was killed in Mexico City during the Spanish conquest of Mexico under Cortex.
27/04/1521 Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan was killed by natives in the Philippines at the Battle of Mactan.
07/09/1522 Ferdinand Magellan’s ship, the Victoria, arrived at San Lucar, Spain, after completing first circumnavigation of the world. Magellan earlier killed on the island of Mactan during voyage.
07/09/1533 Queen Elizabeth I born at Greenwich Palace, London, the first born daughter of Henry VIII, and his second wife, Anne Boleyn.
03/11/1534 The Act of Supremacy was passed. making King Henry VIII head of the English Church.
06/07/1535 Sir Thomas Moore is executed for treason against King Henry VIII of England.
19/05/1536 Ann Boleyn, second wife of Henry VIII and mother of Queen Elizabeth I, was executed on Tower Green for alleged adultery.
28/07/1547 Oliver Cromwell is executed on the order of Henry VIII on charges of treason.
28/01/1547 Henry VIII died at Richmond, in a room reeking of the stench from his leg ulcers.
1551 The first sixpence brought into circulation.
10/07/1553 Lady Jane Grey takes the throne of England.
17/11/1558 Mary I, “Bloody Mary”, died and was succeeded by Elizabeth I
17/11/1558 Elizabeth I, ascended the English throne.
09/03/1562 Kissing in public was banned in Naples, contravention being punishable by death.
15/02/1564 Galileo Galilei, Italian Astronomer and mathematician, was born in Pisa.
18/02/1564 The great Renaissance artist sculptor Michelangelo died in Rome, aged 88.
23/04/1564 The birth of William Shakespeare at Stratford-on-Avon. He also died on this date in 1616.
26/05/1580 Sir Francis Drake finishes is circumnavigation of the Earth.
06/06/1586 Francis Drake’s forces raid St. Augustine in Spanish, Florida.
1586 The land of Kirkleatham sold to a William Bellasis
1587 The plague hits the North East area.
08/02/1587 Mary Queen of Scots was beheaded at Fotheringay Castle in Northamptonshire, implicated in a Catholic
plot to overthrow Elizabeth I.
19/11/1600 King Charles I was born. He dissolved Parliament three times during his reign, leading to civil war. He was eventually tried and executed for high treason in January 1649.
31/12/1600 The British East India Company is chartered.
24/03/1603 Elizabeth I died aged 69 after nearly 45 years as Queen.
05/11/1605 The ‘Gunpowder Plot’ failed to destroy Parliament.
08/11/1605 Robert Catesby, ringleader of the Gunpowder Plotters, is killed.
10/09/1609 Henry Hudson discovers Manhattan Island and the indigenous people living there.
29/06/1613 London’s Globe Theatre burned to the ground, after a cannon fired during a Shakespeare play and set fire to the straw roof.
1614 Hartlepool onlyses port on North East coast, but a report of Yarm inland (River Tees) recorded
18/06/1815 Napoleon defeated at Waterloo by British and Allied forces as he faced the Duke of Wellington
23/04/1616 The death of William Shakespeare.. He was born on this date 15/04/1564 at Stratford-on-Avon.
29/10/1618 Sir Walter Raleigh was executed for alleged conspiracy against James 1 of England.
29/06/1620 After earlier denouncing smoking as a health hazard, King James I banned the growing of tobacco in Britain.
15/08/1620 Merchant ships ‘The Mayflower and ‘Speedwell’ left Plymouth for the New World, but both returned because of bad weather
03/12/1621 Italian astronomer and physicist Galileo Galilel invented the telescope. Later discovered Jupiter’s four largest moons of Lo, Europa, Callisto and Ganymede. Later clashed with Catholic Church and spent his last years under house for saying “The Bible shows the way to go to heaven, not the way the heavens go.”
1622 Stockton rpeorted with ships being loaded with coal for use elsewhere.
1623 Manor of Kirkleatham sold again, from William Bellasis to John Turner.
18/11/1626 St. Peter’s in Rome was consecrated.
17/09/1630 The city of Massachusetts, is founded.
10/10/1631 An Electorate of Saxony army takes over Prague.
23/02/1633 Samuel Pepys, diarist, was born in Fleet Street, London, the son of a tailor.s
1635 Extensive flooding reported along the River Tees.
23/10/1642 ‘The Battle of Edgehill’: the first major conflict of the English Civil War.
16/12/1642 Abel Tasman reaches New Zealand.
02/02/1650 Nell Gwyn, orange seller who became a comedy actress and then mistress of Charles II, was born in London.
16/12/1653 Oliver Cromwell made himself Lord Protector, becoming an uncrowned king for the next four years.
03/09/1658 Puritan leader and Lord Protector of England Oliver Crowell died.
17/10/1662 Charles ll of England sells Dunkirk to France for 40,000 pounds.
08/09/1664 The Dutch settlement of New Amsterdam was seized by the English and re-named New York, in honour of James, Duke of York the future King James II.
02/09/1666 Great Fire of London began at 2am in Pudding Lane, 80% of London was destroyed.
03/09/1666 The Royal Exchange burns down in the Great Fire of London.
06/09/1666 The Great Fire of London was finally extinguished.
31/05/1669 Citing poor eyesight, Samuel Pepys records the last event in his diary.
17/02/1673 Moliere (Jean Baptiste Poquelin) French dramatist and writer of comedies, died on stage.
1676 Kirkleatham Turner’s Hospital came into being.
10/08/1675 Greenwich Observatory was established by King Charles II, who laid the foundation stone.
05/07/1687 Isaac Newton published ‘PhilsosophiaeNaturalis Principia Mathematica’.
27/07/1694 The Bank of England was founded with government backing.
02/12/1697 St. Paul’s Cathedral is consecrated in London.
27/11/1703 The first Eddystone Lighthouse is destroyed in the Great Storm of 1703
16/12/1707 Last recorded eruption of Mount Fuji in Japan.
1708 Kirkleatham School by Sir William Turner called Kirkleatham Old Hall.
03/08/1714 Christopher Columbus sets sail from Palos de la Frontera, Spain.
01/09/1715 King Louis XIV called the ‘Sun King’, died in Versailles after reigning for 74 years – the longest in European history.
22/12/1716 Lincoln Inn Theatre, London, put on England’s first pantomime which included Harlequin, Columbine and Pantaloon.
22/11/1718 Edward Teach, English pirate who sailed under the name of Blackbeard, was killed off the coast of North Carolina.
09/08/1721 Prisoners in Newgate Gaol were offered a pardon if they agreed to be inoculated against smallpox. 7 men volunteered and all survived to live in freedom.
27/10/1728 Marton in Cleveland Captain Cook was born.
03/02/1730 The first stock exchange quotations were published in the Daily Advertiser, London.
28/12/1734 Rob Roy. legendary Scottish clan chief immortalised in a novel by Sir Walter Scott,died.
22/09/1735 Walpole became the first British politician to occupy 10, Downing Street.
1740 Land on the North side of the River Tees reclaimed from the sea.
14/09/1741 George Frederic Handel finished his Messiah, 24 days after he started it, in a room at Brook Street, London.
1743 Tom Brown born Kirkleatham, near Redcar. Later knighted for his gallantry during the Battle of Dettingen, South Germany
1745 God Save the Queen
Thomas Arne composed the melody for the song in 1745. Not officially adopted as the national anthem through a Royal Proclamation or Act of Parliament. Frequently used by UK and other overseas territories for royal occasions.
1748 Lowther family purchase the manor of Wilton
14/07/1749 French revolutionaries stormed the Bastille
28/07/1750 German Composer Johann Sebastian Bach died of a stroke. His sight was restored on July 18th, just 10 days before his death.
04/09/1752 Calendar was reformed as Britain was 11 days behind the rest of Europe. This meant in Britain, 3rd September 1752, became the 14th September 1752, and 11 days of the calendar went missing.
(i.e. As of the start of 1752, the Gregorian calendar was 11 days ahead of the Julian calendar.)
09/09/1754 William Bligh, captain of the Bounty, was born. He sailed around the world on Cook’s second voyage before taking command of his own ship in 1787. The infamous mutiny in 1789 was not the end of hos career. He became Governor of New South Wales in 1805.
1753 Extensive flooding again reported along River Tees
27/01/1756 Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart was born in Salzburg. He composed 20 operas, 17 masses, 41 symphonies, 27 string quartets, and 21 piano concertos, and still died a pauper in 1791, aged 35
15/04/1755 A dictionary of the English Language was published by Dr Samuel Johnson which had taken him eight years to compile. It was in two volumes and contained more than 40,000 words.
01/11/1755 An earthquake reduced 85% of Lisbon to rubble, killing up to 100.000 people.
02/11/1755 Marie-Antoinette, Queen Consort of Louis XVI, was born in Vienna. Of the poor, she said, “If they have no bread, let them eat cake.”
26/10/1760 George lll became King. beginning one of the longest reigns in British history. 60 years of tremendous change, during which he went violently insane.
01/12/1761 Madame Marie Tussaud a waxworks modeller was born in Strasbourg.
23/06/1763 Empress Josephine. wife of Napoleon, was born on the French island of Martinique as Marie Josephine Tascher de la Pagerie.
1767 First sighting of the island of Tahiti, by English sea captain, Samuel Wallis.
25/05/1768 Captain James Cook set off on his first voyage in HMS Endeavour to explore the Antipodes.
07/10/1769 Captain Cook reached New Zealand, anchoring his ship Endeavour at Poverty Bay. He originally named the site Endeavour Bay.
15/08/1769 Napoleon Bonaparte was born in Corsica. Expanded French empire until defeated and sent into exile to Elba. Returned to fight at Waterloo which led to his exile on the remote South Atlantic Island of St. Helena.
21/08/1770 James Cook claims eastern Australia for Great Britain, naming it New South Wales.
15/08/1771 Sir Walter Scott, creator of the historical novel was born in Edinburgh.
1774 Flooding destroys bridges and property over vast area.
16/12/1775 Novelist Jane Austen, whose works include Emma and Pride And Prejudice, was born in Steventon, Hampshire.
07/06/78 “Beau” Brummell was born. Although he became a leader of fashion and a friend of the Prince Regent, he died destitute in France at the age of 62 through gambling and extravagance.
1779 Captain Cook murdered at Hawaii.
1780 Some river traffic (boats) stuck in river due river freezing over.
04/05/1780 The first Derby Horse Race was run at Epsom, won by ‘Diomed’
07/12/1783 William Pitt the Younger became the youngest of Britain’s Prime Ministers – he was 24.
09/12/1783 The site of London’s gallows was moved to Newgate Prison where the first execution took place.
17/08/1786 The birth of Davy Crockett ‘Battle of the Alamo’
17/09/1786 Davy Crocket, king of the wild frontier, was born in Limestone, Tennessee.
10/08/1787 Mozart completed his famous Eine Kleine Nachtmusik. On the same day he finished his Jupiter Symphony.
17/09/1787 Some 39 delegates (out of 42), under the chairmanship of George Washington, approved the Constitution of the Untied States.
26/07/1788 New York became the 11th state in the United States.
14/07/1789 French revolutionaries stormed the Bastille. National Day in France.
28/04/1789 Captain Bligh and 16 loyalists set adrift in a launch from the ship ‘HMS Bounty’ as mutineers took over the ship. It is said that he steered the launch in the South Pacific 3,618 miles to Timor.
14/06/1789 Whiskey distilled from maize was first produced – by a clergyman the Rev Elijah Craig. He called the liquor bourbon because he lived in Bourbon County, Kentucky, USA.
04/12/1791 The first issue of ‘The Observer’, the first Sunday Newspaper, was published.
05/12/1791 Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart died this day aged 35. He died a pauper.
04/08/1792 Percy Bysshe Shelley, romantic poet, was born Horsham, Sussex. Died in Italy 1929.
31/05/1793 The Reign of Terror, in which thousands went to the guillotine in the French Revolution began.
10/08/1793 The Louvre Museum is officially opened in Paris, France.
28/07/1794 Maximillen Robespierre, one of the leaders of the French Revolution was guillotined in Paris.
1795 Vessels of weight 125 tons reaching port of Stockton.
02/08/1788 Thomas Gainsborough, English painter, died.
09/03/1796 Napoleon married society beauty Josephine de Beauharnais.
21/07/1796 Robert Burns, national poet of Scotland, died in Dumfries, aged 37, from endocarditis induced by rheumatism.
25/07/1797 Horatio Nelson lost his right arm during the failed attempt to conquer Tenerife.
10/09/1797 Feminist and women’s rights activist Mary Wollstonecraft died at the age of 38. The mother of Frankenstein novelist Mary Shelley. She died 10 days later after Mary’s birth.


Chris Hansom June 6, 2013 Uncategorized